C.e. reals and random oracles

Left c.e. reals are those which can be effectively approximated from below, as the limit of an increasing sequence of rationals. Correspondingly, right c.e. reals are those which can be effectively approximated from above. Randomness for reals, on the other hand, can be defined via a number of essentially equivalent paradigms, the most well known of which is probably the treatment of Martin-Loef in terms of effectively null sets. In this sequence of papers, we establish a number of basic properties for random c.e. reals, as well as coding techniques involving random oracles more generally. For left-c.e. reals, one highlight is a result established in “Differences of c.e. reals” (see the link below) which asserts that for any pair of left c.e. reals a and b there exists a unique number r > 0 such that qa – b is a 1-random left-c.e. real for each positive rational q > r and a 1-random right-c.e. real for each positive rational q < r. Based on this result we develop a theory of differences of halting probabilities, which answers a number of questions concerning Martin-Loef random left-c.e. reals, including one of the few remaining open problems from the list of open questions in algorithmic randomness by Miller and Nies in 2006. Our methods also suffice to show that all effective approximations to a given random c.e. real are essentially the same in a very strong sense. For random oracles more generally, we extend the classic result of Kucera and Gacs, which states than any infinite sequence can be coded into a Martin-Loef sequence from which it can be effectively recovered. In “Optimal redudancy in computations from random oracles”, we develop a method of coding into random oracles which is optimal in terms  of oracle use.

Monotonous betting strategies in warped casinos, with Barmpalias and Fang, submitted, pdf.

Optimal asymptotic bounds on the oracle use in computations from Chaitin’s Omega, with Barmpalias and Fang, Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 82, 1283-1299, 2016, pdf.

Optimal redundancy in computations from random oracles, with Barmpalias, Journal of Computer and System Sciences (in press), pdf.

Differences of halting probabilities, with Barmpalias, Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 89, 349-360, 2017, pdf.

A note on the differences of computably enumerable reals, with Barmpalias, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computability and Complexity, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 10010, Springer, 2017, pdf.

Lower bounds on the redundancy in computations from random oracles via betting strategies with restricted wagers, with Barmpalias and Teutsch, Information and Computation, 251, 287-300, 2016, pdf.

Computing halting probabilities from other halting probabilities, with Barmpalias, Theoretical Computer Science, 660, 16-22, 2017, pdf.

Pointed computations and Martin-Loef randomness, with Barmpalias and Li, Computability (in press), pdf.

Limits of the Kucera-Gacs coding method, with Barmpalias, Post-proceedings volume of SEALS 2016, South Eastern Logic Symposium. World Scientific 2017, pdf.